Thursday, August 27, 2020

Climate Change and Poverty Essay Example for Free

Environmental Change and Poverty Essay In the course of recent decades, a significant concern is the danger environmental change have for today’s economy. A huge number of individuals are influenced every single day by environmental change yet this is only the start of the most noticeably awful. One thing that appears to go safe by environmental change is societal position; to what extent will cash last as an obstruction with the impacts of Mother Nature? How does neediness increment the dangers related the overwhelming forces of environmental change? When talking as far as destitution various classifications emerge. Neediness in America is not quite the same as destitution in Asia or Africa. Each nation has confronted neediness. It is inescapable; a few nations be that as it may, face an excessively high level of neediness. Environmental change influences a wide range of parts of every nation. Every nation is in danger of destitution because of environmental change; in any case, neediness stricken regions are all the more monetarily, socially, and politically ill-equipped. Country’s monetary standings are extraordinarily influenced by environmental change Many individuals are befuddled regarding how the changing atmospheres influence the economy. Each nation relies upon farming and explicit degrees of water to create explicit incomes. The more destitution stricken regions depend on cultivating and water levels more so than wealthy nations. The greater part of these nations have not yet been completely evolved like USA, Europe or a few pieces of Asia. Environmental change compromises the potential future harvest yields. Environmental change could put an extra 5 to 170 million individuals in danger of craving by the 2080’s (Rosenzwig and Parry). We are discussing an awful ceaseless pattern of obliteration. Nations rely upon downpour succumb to agrarian development; environmental change influences the measure of downpour tumble from dry spells to storm levels. Cultivating is helpless before water, leaving networks with the danger of conceivable starvation. The vast majority of the neediness stricken territories depend entirely on cultivating, for income, yet additionally for nourishment. This being stated, environmental change definitely undermines a country’s monetary status for the more destitution stricken zones as well as each nation also. Environmental change and horticulture are interwoven procedures; both occur on a worldwide scale. The issue about environmental change is that it has a moderate increment, for example, a couple of degrees a year. This doesn't appear to be that staggering. In any case, numerous yields are atmosphere based, for example, grains and espresso, grapes utilized for wine creation, and different organic products; even the smallest increment of temperature will and can influence these harvests. Accordingly environmental change is leaving as of now destitution stricken regions like India and northern Africa to anticipate their extreme destiny. Albeit low and center pay nations are just answerable for a little level of ozone depleting substance emanations, the unfavorable wellbeing impacts related with environmental change will fall lopsidedly on the lower pay nations; this imbalance will additionally worsen worldwide wellbeing variations. The best social risk of environmental change is the manner by which it influences medical problems, particularly those in destitution stricken regions. The changing of temperatures will additionally impact the environment of infections, for example, yellow fever, intestinal sickness, and dengue fever; socially the individuals most in danger are the old, youthful, and poor people (McMichael). A large number of individuals underneath the neediness line and those in country regions speak to high hazard populaces who are presented to bunch wellbeing dangers, including poor sanitation, contamination, hunger, and a consistent lack of clean drinking water (Dhiman). Environmental change is as of now negatively affecting the conservative standings of neediness stricken nations; continuing with the endless loop of social decimation, environmental change appears to have no shortcoming. For example, the mid year of 2010 was the most sultry summer on record in India, with temperatures arriving at a record normal of 122 degrees Fahrenheit. The impacts were boundless: crops die, domesticated animals were executed, and a huge number of individuals were hospitalized or slaughtered (Burke). An investigation of 12 all inclusive urban regions noticed a 2. 80 †5. 08 percent expansion in death rate for every one degree increment over 29 degrees Celsius (Hajat). India has the most elevated measure of individuals living and enduring with AIDS; environmental change influences the exploration and potential arrangements of warding off AIDS and different infections. With restricted assets, for example, water accessible in addition to the fact that it is difficult to make immunizations and fixes it opens up a remarkable measure of potential passings. When taking a gander at the corporate organizations and the fixing of the human living space; the United Nations has endorsed numerous associations to follow environmental change, for example, the UNEP, the World Meteorological Organization and the IPCC. Since the mid-eighties, these organizations have observed the changes, yet have bombed o pass on the criticalness. Studies done by these organizations have presumed that the most recent fifty years are inferable from human exercises and huge partnerships which lead to the changing in the arrangements of the air all through the 21st century (Saltori). These exercises that are referenced are those by methods for organizations that developed into national aggregates. Simultaneous with business development, the ozone depleting substance outflows have grown 70% from 1970 to 2004 (Lehner). Ongoing examinations have indicated that 122 partnerships produce 80% of ozone depleting substances (IPCC). The atmosphere is going to radically change the world perpetually, yet to whose detriment? What precisely does the political prominence of these organizations have to do with environmental change and destitution? The appropriate response lies in one more horrendous endless cycle. Partnerships utilize a great many individuals empowering the incitement of the economy. The individuals consequently buy and live off of the cash from the partnerships. In any case, in addition to the fact that people are living off the organizations, however they are likewise adding to and empowering to the creation of ozone harming substance emanations. Internationally, we as a human advancement have gotten acquainted with these combinations to endure, or so we ruminate. Destitution stricken territories come up short on these 122 global organizations, yet they despite everything feel their rage. There is, be that as it may, without a doubt a silver coating; the organizations and their bringing of our decimation may likewise be the way in to our endurance. We realize that these 122 organizations have in a manner fixed our destiny; yet they likewise carry a lot more credits to the table. These organizations are equipped for animating the economy, propelling innovation and are sufficiently cultivated to lead the world to better wellbeing conditions. The UN built up an adaption store to help creating nations adapt to environmental change. With every one of these endeavors just eighty million dollars was raised, which was miniscule to the genuine sum required. The United Nations and their assents likewise built up a displaced person program for these immature nations; turning into an evacuee nation is more earnestly than vanquishing world harmony. They built up a three level program to assist these nations with rules and guidelines set up that become progressively uncommon at each level. This program has built up these exacting standards, in order to not have a repeat of the exiles after World War II. The income from the organizations would effectively have the option to help the weaknesses they have made. When these approvals produced using the UN and aggregates can understand that they are the carrier of devastation and furthermore the conceivable deliverer, the world might have the option to inhale all the more without any problem. These organizations are announcing consistent development in pay. The company’s total assets is continually on the ascent while the neediness stricken regions are needing assistance and rendered pointless to the organizations destroying impacts on environmental change. The wealth of income would be an incredible assistance whenever gave to those assents made by the UN. In today’s world we face a cruel time ahead. Destitution stricken regions are all the more monetarily, socially and politically ill-equipped. The world is changing and it is for the more regrettable. Environmental change is influencing each national asset we as a worldwide network need to endure. Immature nations are restricted to their measure of assets and rely upon those to endure. With the atmosphere in the ascent the creation of numerous organic products, vegetables, grains and each country’s staples are all in danger. Countries’ domesticated animals are incorporated under the atmosphere change’s pressure. The changing of the climate influences the warmth, yet additionally the downpour tumble from dry seasons to monsoons’ and floods and prompts unsteady clean drinking water supplies. Destitution stricken zones can't deliver certain wellbeing antibodies; environmental change and the changing of cascade truly upset their capacities to make more immunizations and give precise social insurance. Numerous infections and diseases â€Å"power countries† have and can treat and even fix are not as effectively treatable in those immature nations. The most crushing viewpoint is acknowledging how the organizations we underestimate are driving us to our fate. Delivering 80% of ozone harming substances is inconceivable. Is more amazing that these 122 combinations hold the way in to our salvation. These organizations have the influence, the riches and time to fix their demise and help right their wrongs. A huge number of individuals are in danger with the impacts of environmental change. Going â€Å"green† is a basic yet superb approach to help spare our planet be that as it may, our endeavors are pointless to those in seriously destitution stricken zones. An opportunity to make mindfulness is presently; an opportunity to stand up is currently; an opportunity to act is currently!

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Nazisme Essay Example For Students

Nazisme Essay ?NTRODUCT?ONLe nazisme est un bon exemple de r?gime totalitaire. De point de vue de sa naissance et de sa mont?e, le nazisme nous d?montre bien remark un r?gime totalitaire peut sinstaurer. La mont?e du nazisme; cest ? critical une p?riode commen?ant standard la balance de la premi?re guerre mondiale (1918) jusqu? lobtention du pouvoir standard le Parti Nazi (NSDAP: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiter Partei) et la fondation de la 3e Reich (1931) sera pr?sent?e afin de pouvoir exprimer les causes de linstauration dun r?gime totalitaire en Allemagne. Remark, une pens?e politique si extr?me a pu obtenir le pouvoir, surtout standard les moyens l?gaux? Quels sont les cl?s de leur r?ussites; remark le peuple allemand lont tol?r? et support Pourquoi Hitler a r?ussi? Nous allons essayer de r?pondre ? ces questions dans les lignes suivantes avec un plan chronologique. I-La R?publique et La Constitution de WeimarA) La circumstance de lAllemagne apr?s la Premi?re Guerre MondialeLa Monarchie Allemande navait in addition to une autorit? et une l?gitimit? dans le pays quand la d?faite en guerre ?tait pr?vue. Les powers marines qui ne voulaient pas faire la guerre contre les Anglais ?ils croyaient que ?a serait une self destruction , les dockers et lorganisation arm?e, les ?freikorps? s?taient r?volt?s. Friedrich Ebert qui contr?lait le gouvernement allemand ? cette ?poque voulait fonder une monarchie constitutionnelle. Quand les rebelles sont venus devant le palais du gouvernement ? Berlin, lami dEbert, Schiedman a d?clar? standard mishap La R?publique Allemande. Une alliance form?e de quatre partis (SPD, USPD, Zentrum, DVP) de ignoble et de droite a commenc? alors ? gouverner. B) Le Trait? de VersaillesLe attribute? de Versailles ?tait lacceptation de la d?faite standard les Pays dEntente dans la 1?re Guerre Mondiale. LAllemagne consid?r? comme d?bute ur de la guerre avec ce characteristic?, a perdu 13% de sa territoire et 10% de sa populace. La r?gion dAlsace Loraine conqu?rite en 1871 est rendu en France. Une partie de la Prusse est donn?e ? Pologne. Ce qui ?tait le in addition to grave, cest que lAllemagne devait payer 132 milliards de mark de d?domagement de guerre. De cette raison, une partie de la territoire Autrichienne qui appartenait en Allemagne est embrace? standard la France en tant que d?domagement. Le attribute? de Versailles a caus? des grands probl?mes politiques internes en Allemagne. C) La R?publique et La ConstitutionLa r?publique ?tait fond?e et une alliance gouvernait le pays depuis le d?but de 1919. En Ao?t 1919, une assembl?e constituante sest r?unie ?Weimar (le nom de la r?publique vient de cette ville). Un mois apr?s le Trait? de Versailles, la constitution allemande est accept?e. C?tait une constitution qui ?tait tr?s d?mocratique pour child ?poque. Tous les citoyens homme ou femme avaient le droit de vote ? partir de vingt ans. La repr?sentation proportionnelle ?tait pr?vue comme mode de scrutin aux ?lections l?gislatives. Les droits et les libert?s de lhomme et de citoyen ?taient garantis standard lEtat F?d?rale. Les etats f?d?r?s sont rendus in addition to attach?s au focus. Le Pr?sident de la R?publique ?tait ?quipp? des comp?tences comme la d?signation du chancelier. Le droit reconnu le in addition to significant est le choice. Le peuple pouvait vouloir voter une loi et m?me pouvait laccepter malgr? le Reichstag (le parlement). La constitution de Wei mar ?tait un exemple tr?s d?mocratique et avanc? pour child ?poque. II-Le Parti Nazi et Son Progr?s ParlementaireA) Lorigine, la fondation et lorganisation du partiLorigine du Parti Nazi est la soci?t? Thul? qui ?tait un groupe de pens?e affectionate? standard un ouvrier de chemin de fer Anton Drexler et child ami Rudolf Sebottendorf (Ao?t 1918). DAP (Deutsche Arbeiter Partei) est d?riv? de cette soci?t? en 1919 avec la interest du Karl Hasser. Adolf Hitler y participe en 1919 comme culinary specialist de propagande. Il ?tait un tr?s bon orateur. C?tait un parti antis?mitiste, anticomuniste, nationaliste et activist. Il d?fendait la sup?riorit? de la race Arienne. En F?vrier 1920, DAP devient NSDAP (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiter Partei) avec un program ? 25 articles. Le yet du parti ?tait de modifier totalement les bases ?conomiques, sociales, culturelles et politiques du Reich. Lunification des minorit?s allemandes, xenophobie et lid?e de lexpulsion des juifs sont fortement exprim?es. On d?clarait aussi dans le program les principes ridge nouvelle association ?conomique et sociale sans classes et des aspirations totalitaires comme le contr?le de la presse et de l?ducation. Les membres du parti sont plut?t de la classe moyenne. Les petits middle class, les paysans, les craftsmans et les commer?ants forment la majorit? des adh?rants. Le groupe qui est sous pr?sent? est les ouvriers vehicle le socialisme et le communisme qui sont posts ? l?poque mod?raient la interest des ouvriers. Le support du parti vient plut?t de la r?action contre Weimar et le Trait? de Versailles. L?conomie lib?rale qui power les gens et linexistence de la garantie de lemploi servaient au Parti Nazi. Les ch?meurs supportaient bien le parti et participaient aux SA (Sturmabteilungen:les troupes de insurance). Les jeunes mieux influenc?s avec la propagande, aventuriers, se sentaient comme une partie hill communaut? et devenaient membre du parti. La propagande ?tait la in addition to importante arme du parti. Lutilisation de la presse, les r?unions, les films de propagande et les SA uniform?s formaient les principaux moyens de propagande. NSDAP sorganisait sur le plan national dans chaq ue circonscription, presque quartier standard quartier (Gau) avec un pioneer (Gauleiter) ? la t?te. Il cherchait sa client?le dans toutes les lounge chairs sociales. Les membres sont d?pass?s de 176.000 en 1929 ? 4 millions en 1933. Fibonacci EssayC) Janvier 1933: Le Chancelier HitlerAvec le bolster de Schleiher, Von Papen et le fils du Pr?sident de la R?publique, Oskar Von Hindenburg, Hitler devient le chancelier ridge alliance de DVNP, Zentrum, et NSDAP. Les autres associ?s de la alliance voulaient manipuler les nazis et croyaient quen limitant leurs comp?tences, il serait conceivable de les contr?ler. Pour cette raison, on na donn? que trois minist?res pas si importants comme celui des affaires int?rieurs. D) La Naissance de la Troisi?me Reich: Tous Les Pouvoirs ? HitlerApr?s ?tre devenu le Chancelier, Hitler d?clare les nouvelles ?lections qui seront r?alis?es au 5 Mars 1933 avec un d?cret-loi. Ce d?cret est suivi standard un autre qui autorise au gouvernement dintervenir aux signs et de pouvoir censurer la presse si la s?curit? du Reich est menac?e. Dailleurs, ces d?crets sont largement utilis?s standard les nazis pour enlever lopposition (surtout les communistes) et les opposants sont mobilis?s de leurs postes. Au 22 F?vrier 1933, la complice dHitler, Goering fonde les troupes de SS (Schutz Staffel) en Prusse comme administration de police. Les SA et les SS combattent alors gathering contre les opposants. Au 27 F?vrier, un communiste dutch Van der Lubbe met lincendie au Reichstag. Les nazis profitent de cet evenement pour arr?ter tous les communistes. Un nouvel d?cret enl?ve tous les libert?s et r?gles instaur?es standard la constitution de Weimar et on lapplique strictement. Une gr ande somme de gens sont arr?t?s standard Goering et les SS et KPD (Komunist Partei Deutschland) est devenu ill?gal. Au 5 Mars 1933, le Parti Nazi devient le head parti avec 43,9% des voix. C?tait le cas o? lAllemagne an eu la premi?re fois un parti avec une si grande pourcentage de voix. NSDAP forme alors une alliance avec lassociation de DVNP et les voix aggregates tend 51,9%. En r?alit?, il nexistait pas un si terrific help mais Hitler d?montrait les r?sultats comme une victoire. Les nazis ont alors commenc? ? obtenir le contr?le de tous les domaines politico-?conomiques: les establishments et workplaces etatiques, les banques, le business, la presse and so forth Les gouvernements des etats f?d?r?s aussi sont acqu?ris standard NSDAP. Au 23 Mars, Hitler r?cup?re tous les pouvoirs executifs et l?gislatifs standard laccord (forc? avec les dangers des SA et des SS) du parlement. 81 d?put?s de KPD sont tout de suite prisonn?s. On ferme dabord KPD puis SPD. Quelques uns se sont alli?s a vec les nazis pour continuer ? exister. Le Parti Catholique Centrale (Zentrum) a men? une politique intelligente pour coexister mais lopposition de lEglise Catholique contre le nazisme a caus? leur blade aussi. Au 14 Juillet, avec une loi dinterdiction de cr?ation des partis politiques, Letat de parti remarkable dHitler est affectionate?. Derni?rement, NSDAP prend le contr?le des syndicats et fonde DAF (Deutsche Arbeiter Front): le Front dOuvrier Allemand. CONCLUS?ONLe processus de la mont?e du nazisme au pouvoir pr?sent? ci-dessus nous donne un exemple de linstauration dun r?gime totalitaire. Si on look at bien les evenements v?cus dans ce processus, on peut bien d?duire les causes de cette mont?e du nazisme. Pourquoi Hitler? Premi?rement, la constitution de Weimar qui ?tait tr?s d?mocratique et souple pour child ?poque rendait simple les man?uvres politiques. Ensuite, le mode de scrutin pr?cis? dans la constitution ? repr?sentation proportionnelle ne permettait pas la cr?ation dun gouvernement stable. L?conomie instable perturb?e standard les d?domagements de guerre et des emergencies ?conomiques causait un taux de ch?mage ?lev? et une grave instabilit? sociale.Derni?rement, les d?fauts des establishments qui ne sont jamais contr?l?es comme il faut et la manque dutilisation des activities des autres partis politiques ont bien servi ? NSDAP. Nest pessimiste qui couvrait une grande partie du peuple allemand ? cause de ces handicaps est tr?s bien manipul? (lutilisation de lespoir) standard les nazis en utilisant tous les moyens de propagande. Avec cette propagande extr?me, on est arriv? ? faire int?rioriser une id?ologie totalitaire. Tous ces facteurs pr?sent?s descriptent bien la conjoncture qui peut mener un pays ? avoir un r?gime totalitaire. BibliographyLA MONT?E DU NAZ?SME EN ALLEMAGNE?NTRODUCT?ONA-Pr?sentation

Friday, August 21, 2020

Topics For An Argument And Persuasion Essay

Topics For An Argument And Persuasion EssayThere are many topics for an argument and persuasion essay. You will find that there are many options for a writer when it comes to writing the outline of an argument and persuasion essay. First, you will want to decide what you would like to discuss in your argument and persuasion essay. Next, you will want to know where you should begin and what you should expect to accomplish in the writing process.The first thing that you need to do is figure out who your target audience is. Once you have that figured out, you will want to figure out how to write an argument and persuasion essay that speak to them. It is best to start your essay with the target audience in mind so that you can make sure that you cover the most important points that are important to them.When you are writing your essay, you need to know how to speak the language of the public opinion. The problem with most essays is that they are written in the formal language of academia . This is not the language that the average person needs to be using in order to get across what they need to say. If you are trying to get your points across, it is best to use the language of the average person.In order to do this, you need to take a look at the language that you are using in your essay. Do you use slang? If so, then you will want to change it into everyday language in order to connect with the target audience.If you are writing a business paper, then you will want to use the same techniques that you would use in any other type of writing. You will want to build a dialogue with your readers and do things that people often do when they are writing for a specific audience. You need to use persuasive language and choose topics that appeal to those reading your essay. The process that you need to follow in order to learn how to write an argument and persuasion essay is actually very similar to learning how to write a book. You need to be able to take the reader on a j ourney that can be very personalized to that person. As long as you stay within the confines of the theme of the argument and persuasion essay, you should be fine.The reason that most people fail when they are trying to write a persuasive essay is because they try to cram too much information into their essay. This is something that you should avoid. Your essay needs to flow and feel natural to the reader. So, if you are in a rush to write your essay, you will find that you end up having problems when you are trying to get the message across to the reader.When you are writing your essay, you want to focus on topics that are interesting to you. You will find that you will be able to make connections to your topic and have it relate to your essay much easier once you start to add different subjects to your essay.

Monday, May 25, 2020

Military Conscription, Recruiting & The Draft Overview

Until the prolonged military actions in Iraq and Afghanistan, the Army had met its annual recruiting goals. However, that is no longer the case, and many soldiers and officers are not re-enlisting. This pressure on existing resources has led many to speculate that Congress will be forced to conscription, popularly known in the US as the Draft.  For example, retired General Barry McCaffrey, former head of the U.S. Southern Command and division commander during Operation Desert Storm has said, We broke the Army after World War II and paid for it in Korea. We broke the Army after Vietnam War and paid for it with the hollow force of the 1970s. We are doing it again, with an Army that is overcommitted and underfunded. And if we end up in an unprovoked war with North Korea, then the United States could pay a very heavy price as a result. President George W. Bush was equally adamant that the all-volunteer Army is sound and no draft is needed, saying during his campaign, Our all-volunteer army will remain an all-volunteer army... We will not have a draft... The only politicians that supported a draft are democrats, and the best way to avoid a draft is to vote for me. Definition of Conscription Conscription is probably as old as mankind; in general, it means involuntary labor demanded by some established authority and is mentioned in the Bible as a means to build temples. In modern use, it is synonymous with required time in a nations armed forces. Throughout history, conscription has enabled the raising of mass armies at little cost and completely changed the scale of warfare. It enabled Napoleon to raise the first great conscription army of 0.6 million French soldiers which he led against Russia in the late 1790s. It also allowed the Northern German Alliance to raise 1.2 million soldiers against France in the 1870s. By the 20th century, most major powers were relying on conscription for their military. In World War I, the German Emperor Wilhelm II drafted 3.4 million conscripts while Russia drafted 15 million soldiers for its army. Conscription sustained the armies of both Allied and Axis powers during World War II as well NATO and Warsaw Pact during the Cold War. By the second half of the 20th century, conscription was firmly entrenched as a prominent feature in modern societies. At least 27 nations currently require military service, including Brazil, Germany, Israel, Mexico, and Russia. At least 18 nations have volunteer armies, including Australia, Canada, Japan, the United Kingdom and the US. Conscription in the US The young United States created a militia in 1792, mandatory for every white male age 18-45. Attempts to pass federal conscription legislation for the War of 1812 failed, although some states did so. In April 1862, the Confederacy adopted the draft. On 1 January 1863, President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed all slaves in the Confederacy. Acknowledging an undersized military, in March 1863, Congress passed the National Enrollment Act, which subjected all single men age 20-45 and married men up to age 35 to a draft lottery. Enlistment bounties led to immigrants and southern blacks forming a sizeable portion (25% and 10%, respectively) of the Union army. The draft was controversial, especially among the working class, because the wealthy could buy their way out for $300 (less than the cost of hiring a substitute, also allowable). In 1863, a mob burned the New York City draft office, touching off a five-day riot that targeted anger at the citys black population as well as the wealthy. The draft resumed in August 1863, after the federal government stationed 10,000 soldiers in the City. Draft opposition occurred in other cities throughout the north, including Detroit. US Conflicts and The Draft Conflict Draftees Armed Forces Total Civil War - Union(1983-1865) 164,000 (8%)inc. substitutes 2.1 million WWI(1917 - 1918) 2.8 million (72%) 3.5 million WWII(1940 - 1946) 10.1 million (63%) 16 million Korea(1950 - 1953) 1.5 million (54%) 1.8 in theatre,2.8 million total Vietnam(1964 - 1973) 1.9 million(56% / 22%) 3.4 million in theatre,8.7 million total                      Twentieth Century World War I led to the Selective Service Act of 1917, which prohibited enlistment bounties and personal substitution. However, it provided for religious  conscientious objectors (COs)  and was implemented through the Selective Service System. About three-quarters of the WWI army of 3.5 million was generated via conscription; slightly more than 10% of those who registered were called into service. Riots such as those that took place during the Civil War were not repeated, although there were protests. For example, about 12% of those drafted failed to show up for duty; 2-3 million never registered. After France fell in 1940, Congress enacted a pre-war (sometimes called peacetime) draft;  conscriptees  only had to serve one year. In 1941, by a one-vote margin in the House, Congress extended the one-year draft. After Pearl Harbor, Congress extended the draft to men age 18-38 (at one point, 18-45). As a result,  approximately 10 million men were drafted through the Selective Service System, and nearly 6 million enlisted, primarily in the U.S. Navy and Army Air Corps. In the early days of the Vietnam war, draftees were a minority of the total US armed forces. However, their higher percentage in the Army meant that  they formed the majority of infantry riflemen  and accounted for more than half of Army battle deaths. Deferments, including college students, caused the draft and the casualties to be judged unfairly. For example, African-Americans accounted for 16% of Army casualties in Vietnam in 1967 (15% for the entire war). The draft resistance movement was supported by students, pacifists, clergy, civil rights and feminist organizations, as well as war veterans. There were demonstrations, draft-card burnings, and protests at induction centers and local draft boards. Between 1965 and 1975, faced with well over 100,000 apparent draft offenders, the   federal government  indicted 22,500 persons, of whom 8,800 were convicted and 4,000 imprisoned. As the  Supreme Court  expanded the criteria from religious to moral or ethical objections, CO exemptions grew in relation to actual inductions from 8% in 1967 to 43% in 1971 and 131%in 1972. Between 1965 and 1970, 170,000 registrants were classified as COs. President Nixon  was elected in 1968 and had criticized the draft in his campaign. Nixon reduced draftees and gradually recalled US troops from Vietnam. The draft ended in 1973. In 1975,  President Gerald Ford  suspended compulsory draft registration. In 1980  President Jimmy Carter  reinstituted it in reaction to the  Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. In 1982,  President Ronald Reagan  extended it. At the end of the Vietnam War, Congress abolished the draft, ending the  Woodrow Wilson  endorsed conscription policy passed by Congress in 1917. It followed the recommendations of a Nixon-initiated Commission on an All-Volunteer Force (Gates Commission). Three economists served on the commission: W. Allen Wallis, Milton Friedman, and Alan Greenspan.  Although we have embraced an all-volunteer army, we still require Selective Service registration  for males age 18-25. By the Numbers Its difficult to compare statistics on US armed forces across this 100  year history. This is because of the emergence of the standing army and US military presence around the globe. For example, during the Vietnam era (1964-1973), the US armed forces consisted of 8.7 million on active duty. Of this number, 2.6 million served within South Vietnam borders; 3.4 million served in  Southeast  Asia  (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand and South China Sea waters). Draftees were a relatively small percentage of the total armed service population during this period. Except for isolated statistics (88% of infantry riflemen), data are not easily found which support or refute the theory that draftees were proportionally more likely to be deployed to Vietnam. However, they died in higher proportion. [D]raftees made up 16% of battle deaths in 1965, [but]   they were 62% of deaths in 1969. Status of the All-Volunteer Army The All-Volunteer Army (AVA) put the Army in the same position as the other four branches of service. Today there are two issues are impacting the AVA: missing recruitment goals and involuntary contract extensions. In March 2005, the Christian Science Monitor  reported that, A study conducted by the Army last year [2004] and posted recently on a Defense Contracting Command website (but since removed after news stories discussed the study) indicates that women and young black men are increasingly staying away from the Army. The poll, based on interviews with 3,236 youth ages 16 to 24, showed that recruiting an all-volunteer Army in times of war is getting increasingly difficult. The AVA is not a representative snapshot of America: only  three of five soldiers are white; two of five are African-American, Hispanic, Asian, Native American or Pacific Islander. This decline comes in the face of ever more generous enlistment bonuses and more recruiters in high school and campus halls, courtesy of a Congressional mandate that schools must allow recruiters on campus. Missing recruiting numbers puts pressure on current soldiers because the military is extending tours of duty and contracts. Extending contracts—issuing stop-loss orders—has been called a backdoor draft. As the  Seattle Times reported,  an Oregon National Guardsman who finished his eight-year enlistment in June 2004 was told by the Army in October of that year to ship to Afghanistan and reset his military termination date to Christmas Eve 2031. Santiagos unit refuels helicopters, not what most of us would think of as a high-tech position. The Army added 26 years to his enlistment; his lawsuit says Conscription for decades or life is the work of despots... It has no place in a free and democratic society. His lawsuit, Santiago v Rumsfeld, was heard by the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals in Seattle in April 2005. It was the the highest court review of the Armys stop-loss policy, which affects about 14,000 soldiers nationwide. In  May 2005, the court ruled in favor of the government. Since the Sept. 11, 2001,  terrorist attacks, about 50,000 soldiers have been subjected to stop-loss, according to Lt. Col Bryan Hilferty,  an Army spokesman. The Case For The Draft Our  first President  eloquently stated the  rationale for national service: ... it must be laid down as a primary position and the basis of our (democratic) system, that every citizen who enjoys the protection of a free Government owes not only a proportion of his property but even his personal service to the defense of it.† Israel has often cited an example of highly-trained and effective armed services—one peopled by mandatory national service. However, unlike a draft which selects only a subset of the population, Most Israeli citizens are required  to serve in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) for a period of between two and three years. Israel is unique in that military service is compulsory for both males and females. The closest that the US has come to such a policy was at the time of Washington when white males were required to be part of the militia. National service has been proposed and debated in Congress intermittently since Vietnam; it has not been successful. In fact, Congress has reduced funding for voluntary forms of service, such as the  Peace Corps. The Universal National Service Act (HR2723) would have required all men and women aged 18-26 to perform military or civilian service in furtherance of the   national defense and  homeland security, and for other purposes. The required term of service was defined as 15 months. It was introduced by Rep. Rangel (D-NY), a veteran of the Korean War. Prior to action in Iraq, when he first introduced this bill,   he said, I truly believe that those who make the decision and those who support the  United States  going into war would feel more readily the pain thats involved, the sacrifice thats involved if they thought that the fighting force would include the affluent and those who historically have avoided this great responsibility...Those who love this country have a patriotic obligation to defend this country. For those who say the poor fight better, I say give the rich a chance. Its not hard to find passionate calls for mandatory national service for all. Its more difficult to find similar calls for a draft lottery. The conservative  American Enterprise Institute  quotes former draftee Charles Moskos, A draft would dramatically upgrade the quality of U.S. recruits because it would give the military access to a true cross-section of our youth. Due to enticing economic and educational alternatives elsewhere, the number of military enlistees who achieve advanced scores on qualifying tests has dropped by a third since the mid-1990s.  In the fiscal year  2000, the Army actually took in some 380 recruits with felony arrests.Most telling, over a third of new military members currently fail to complete their enlistments. Contrast this with the one in ten draftees who didn’t complete their two-year obligations when we last had a draft. It’s much better to have most soldiers serve a short term honorably than to have large  cohorts  discharged for cause. Many people who talk about bringing back the draft are raising the issue because they believe the US armed forces are stretched too thin. Anecdotally, this position is supported by regular news reports of troops having their time in Iraq extended. Arguments Against The Draft Warfare has changed dramatically since Napoleans march to Russia or the battle of Normandy. It has also changed since Vietnam. There is no longer a need for massive human cannon fodder. Indeed, the military has gone high tech, with missions in Iraq being guided by military minds located on US soil, according to Thomas Friedman in  The World Is Flat. Thus one argument against the draft makes the case that highly skilled professionals are needed, not just men with combat skills. The Cato Institute argues that even  draft registration should be abandoned  in todays geopolitical climate: The notion of security insurance sounds superficially appealing, but in the case of registration, we should ask, Insurance against what? Virginians have little need of earthquake insurance; farmers who till Nebraskas cornfields need not purchase hurricane insurance. America, the worlds sole remaining superpower with by far the most powerful and technologically sophisticated military, does not need draft registration.The sign-up was always intended to quickly generate a large conscript army—similar to Americas 13-million-man military in World War II—for a protracted conventional war against the  Soviet Union  and Warsaw Pact centered in Europe. Today that kind of conflict is a paranoid fantasy. Consequently, the premium for registration insurance would be better spent elsewhere. Likewise, Cato endorses an early 1990s  Congressional Research Service report  that says an expanded reserve corps is preferable to a draft: A requirement for major increases in combat forces could be met much more quickly by activating more reserves than by instituting a draft. A draft would not provide the trained officers and non-commissioned officers to man effective units; it would only turn out freshly trained junior enlisted recruits. Catos author also notes that there is nothing wrong with avoiding  forced participation  in a war of dubious moral validity and strategic value. Even  veterans remain divided  on the need for a draft. Conclusion Compulsory national service is not a new concept; it is rooted in government policies of the late 1700s. A draft changes the nature of national service because only a sub-set of citizens must serve. At two key points in American history, the draft was highly divisive and resulted in massive protests: the Civil War and Vietnam. President Nixon and Congress abolished the draft in 1973. Reinstituting the draft would require an act of Congress. Sources Archiving Early AmericaNYC Draft RiotsSelective Service

Friday, May 15, 2020

Absolute Advantage By Adam Smith Essay - 1507 Words

Absolute advantage is the ability of a country, individual, company or region to produce a good or service at a lower cost per unit than the cost at which any other entity produces that same good or service. The main concept of absolute advantage is generally attributed to Adam Smith for his 1776 publication An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations in which he countered mercantilist ideas Ricardo (International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 2007). Adam Smith, the classical economist who was a lead a leading advocate of free trade on the grounds that supported the international trade of labor, founded his concept of cost on the labor theory of value within each nation that labor is the only factor of production and is homogeneous and the cost of a good depends exclusively on the amount of labor required to produce it (Carbaugh, 2014). Smith’s trading concept of absolute advantage for two-nation and two-product world explains that the international t rade will be beneficial when one nation has an absolute cost advantage in one good and another nation has an absolute cost advantage in another good. In short, each nation benefits by specializing in the production of the good that it produces at a lower cost than the other nation, while importing the good that it produces at a higher cost (Carbaugh, 2014). However, Smith argued that it was totally impossible for all nations to become rich simultaneously by following mercantilism because it is possibleShow MoreRelatedInternational Trade Theories, Trade, Cultural Diffusion, And Economic Trade Theory1374 Words   |  6 Pagespromote their international trade. Adam Smith Absolute Advantage Adam Smith a Scottish an economist, known as the father of free trade and he was recognized as the founder of modern economics and as one of the first and most famous thinkers who argued in favor of free trade. According to Blecker (1997) Adam Smith developed the theory of absolute advantage in 1776. The concept of his theory absolute advantage was that, when the country has an absolute advantage should be able to produce more outputRead MoreDifferent Theories Concepts Of International Trade Theories1697 Words   |  7 Pagesbenefits to promote their. According to Blecker (1997) Absolute Advantage Adam Smith a Scottish an economist, known as the father of free trade and he was recognized as the founder of modern economics and as one of the first and most famous thinkers who argued in favour of free trade Adam Smith developed the theory of absolute advantage in 1776. The concept of his theory absolute advantage was that, when the country has an absolute advantage should be able to produce more output of goods and servicesRead MoreAdam Smith and David Ricardo Had More Similarities Than Differences in Their Ideas623 Words   |  3 Pagestrade camp, Adam Smith and David Ricardo. Adam Smith established cornerstone of free trade and David Ricardo put a stepping stone on it. Since Ricardo read the wealth of nations, Smith’s masterpiece, and developed his theory, most of his thinking has a lot of similarities with that of Smith. Division of labor and free trade took deep root in their mind. When it comes to object of nationâ€⠄¢s free trade, however, their opinion showed dissentience with absolute advantage and comparative advantage. DivisionRead MoreThe Theory Behind Absolute Advantage1141 Words   |  5 Pagesforward by Adam Smith (Absolute advantage, 1776) which was then expanded on by David Ricardo with his theory of the Ricardian Model (Comparative advantage, 1817). Also including the Heckscher-Ohlin model (relative factor abundance, 1919, 1933) and the ideas of New Trade Theory (Economies of Scale and Imperfect Competition). These ideas will be evaluated and synthesised to see if these explanations truly explain the reasons of trade theory. Absolute advantage was an idea suggest by Adam Smith in 1817Read MoreA Systematic Theory Of Population Theory1611 Words   |  7 Pageseconomists, along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith, and James Mill. Also, he wrote books that deal with theory of diminishing returns, theory of distribution of income, views of unemployment, theory of comparative advantage, and a brief assessment of his overall contribution. However, in this paper, I will focus on Ricardo theory of comparative advantage and how is it an improvement on Smith’s theory of Absolute Advantage. According to the investopedia, a comparative advantage is an economic law that demonstratesRead MoreGlobalization And International Trade Theory1203 Words   |  5 Pagesbig role in every person’s life. The credit should go to every economist who has contributed to the development of international trade theory. Trade is the consequence of the human â€Å"propensity to truck, barter, and exchange one thing for another † (Smith, 1776). Different people have different propensities for trading, so do different economic periods have different economic conditions, which require different international trade theories. This could be the material cause for the development of internationalRead MoreAdam Smith : An Era Of Classical Political Economy1430 Words   |  6 Pagesof â€Å"classical political economy†, Adam Smith (1723-1790) has challenged many previous political-economic assumptions, notably the Mercantilist points of view, to prosper and strengthen a state. In his most influential work Wealth of Nations (1779) and various other works of his, he has put forward his arguments, given a critique of their ideas, and formulated theories of how the market and trade should instead be. This essay will show in which ways Adam Smith, as a free economy capitalist, hasRead MoreMercantilism Analysis770 Words   |  4 PagesAdam Smith and David Hume were the founding fathers of anti-mercantilist thought. There were number of scholars who found many limitation of mercantilism even before Adam Smith developed his theory that could fully substitute it. The criticism made by Dudley North, David Hume, and John Locke eroded much of mercantilism and because of which it uncertainly lost its favour during the 18th century. In the year 1969, John Locke made an agreement that prices differ in proportion to the quantity of moneyRead MoreInternational Trade Theory Of Comparative Advantage And Absolute Advantage1485 Words   |  6 Pagestrade explain why countries have the opportunity to trade, theory of comparative advantage and absolute advantage. Adam Smith came up with the theory of absolute advantage where the country that produces more of one good that another country has simply an absolute advantage over it. This theory normally constructed with two commodities and two countries. In Schuhmachers article â€Å"Adam Smith’s theory of absolute advantage and the use of doxography in the history of economics† he says, â€Å"each nation canRead MoreThe Advantages of International Trade803 Words   |  3 Pagesfrom other countries. 2.1 Theory of International Trade The basis for international trade is the specialization. Specialization refers to a country’s decision to specialize in the production of a certain good or list of goods because of the advantages it possesses in their production. Different nations specalize in the production of those goods and services for which their resources are best suited. An individual who attempts to be entirely self- sufficient would have to do everything herself

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

`` Howl `` By Allen Ginsberg - 1047 Words

â€Å"Howl† by Allen Ginsberg can be labeled as a prose poem, but it does not seem to fit any one category in literature. One could argue that â€Å"Howl† can not be confined by categorization because of how different in style and form that it is. This version of the poem was published in 1956 and has three parts. It can be viewed as a stream of consciousness with many random comma placements and few chances to take a breath while reading it. The poem is constantly building upon itself giving the reader little time to pause. The long stretched out lines help add to this effect of, what Ginsberg called, â€Å"a big long clanky statement† (492). By stretching out the sentences Ginsberg adds to the overall lengthy feeling that the poem has. The beginning of the poem has a dedication to Carl Solomon, a friend Ginsberg met in the Columbia Psychiatric Institute. He drew inspiration from Solomon’s work in â€Å"Howl† and thought highly of him as an intelle ctual person. The first line of the poem reads, â€Å"I saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness, starving hysterical naked,† and the speaker continues on from there (492). Right away readers are thrown into the speaker’s view and what he has seen in his life. The first misplaced comma is one of many, but symbolizes the chaos that he is describing all around him. In our class discussion we talked about how the speaker alienates an older generation in this quote because he is speaking about the younger generation that he is part of. ThisShow MoreRelatedHowl, By Allen Ginsberg1256 Words   |  6 PagesHowl for Somebody I Never Met in a Place I Never Heard of about a Cause we Already Won Howl, by Allen Ginsberg, is an inaccessible writing with such obscure references from a unique personal life and small subculture from 50 years ago that it cannot stand on its own today. It tackles issues society has already decided, makes them completely unrelatable, and attempts to shock readers. Except to literary historians, this poem is irrelevant to modern society because of constant references to obscureRead MoreEssay on Howl by Allen Ginsberg2877 Words   |  12 PagesHowl: How the Poem Came to Be and How it Made Allen Ginsberg Famous When Allen Ginsberg sat down at a secondhand typewriter in 1955 and began the first of his many subsequent drafts of Howl, he had no idea of the controversy it would cause. I fact, he didnt even set out to write a formal poem and especially not one that he would consider publishing. Instead, what the 29 year old began would materialize into his most famous literary work and the cause of a much publicized trial debating theRead MoreAnalysis Of Howl By Allen Ginsberg1107 Words   |  5 Pagesglobalization. In the poem Howl, by Allen Ginsberg who is one of the Beat writers, he uses almost all the themes used by the Beat writers. The Beat writers asked intellectual questions about sexuality, identity, bureaucracy and religion. When re-reading their work years later we might perceive it as being naà ¯ve, but yet for any person who experiences the puzzled time of life between the age of 13 and 30 will relate to these questions asked by the Beat writers. The word â€Å"howl† is usually associated withRead MoreAnalysis Of Allen Ginsberg s Howl1745 Words   |  7 PagesThe importance of the symbolism of madness in Allen Ginsberg’s Howl. The theme of madness is vital in Allen Ginsberg’s Howl, as a poem written by a young voice with the purpose to intentionally shock audiences. It presents views of insanity and madness as both tragically victimizing the talented young minds of America, causing the straight-cut society to oppress and restrain their creativity in psychiatric hospitals; but also as a sort of liberation, allowing the artist to connect to their creativityRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Howl By Allen Ginsberg Essay981 Words   |  4 PagesHowl The standard types of poems out there in the world doesn’t really define poetry but points it to a certain direction, from haiku to slam poetry to Shakespearean. The list could go on of the many types of poetry. Poetry was a way to tell stories or exaggerate cultural events. The poem â€Å"Howl†, written by Allen Ginsberg was written in the 1950’s and captures the many struggles in life that many people were experiencing during this time. There is no clear indication as to exactly what the poemRead MoreEssay on Howl Kaddish By Allen Ginsberg2521 Words   |  11 Pagesamp;quot;Howlamp;quot; and amp;quot;Kaddishamp;quot;, the overall tone of the poem hits you right in the face. Allen Ginsberg, the poet, presents these two poems as complaints and injustices. He justifies these complaints in the pages that follow. Ginsberg also uses several literary techniques in these works to enhance the images for the reader. His own life experiences are mentioned in the poems , the majority of his works being somewhat biographical. It is said that Allen Ginsberg was aheadRead MoreAnalysis Of Allen Ginsberg s Howl And 1661 Words   |  7 PagesAllen Ginsberg was one of the greatest admired Beat Generation poets, who particularly used free flowing, aggressive and occasionally a discourteous style of language to show that the rule and social structure over heterosexuality can be filled with opposition, so he decided to release queerness. Ginsberg strongly disputed capitalism and conformity that notably consisted of sexual repression, so he incorporated in the development of counterculture and challenged the heteronormative, procreation-drivenRead MoreAllen Ginsberg, Howl Cultural Imapact Essay2878 Words   |  12 Pagesthats what the poet does.† Allen Ginsberg believed this wholly and based his means of poetry by what he said in this sentence. One cannot censor thoughts, just as one can’t censor expression. Ginsberg faced controversy for sexual content and profanities that he used in his poetry, but those were merely his private thoughts that he brought to the public. His poetry fueled a whole generational revolution in the 1950s. In times of cookie cutter uniformity Allen Ginsberg went against norm and wroteRead MoreChallenging the Modernity of American Culture: The Howl by Allen Ginsberg1165 Words   |  5 Pages In the poem Howl, Allen Ginsberg challenges the modernity of American culture, which enforces the â€Å"best minds† (1) to give up their freedom to conform to the desired sense of normality. Ginsberg states â€Å"I saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness, starving hysterical naked/ dragging themselves through the negro streets at dawn looking for an angry fix† (9). His expression of Moloch The angry fix is what all of these â€Å"best minds† look for after being stripped of their freedom to conformRead MoreSocial Pressures Reflected in Ginsbergs Howl Essay921 Words   |  4 PagesSocial Pressures Reflected in Ginsbergs Howl Post World War II America produced a number of images that will be forever imprinted on the minds of Americans. Such images as television shows like Leave It To Beaver and I Love Lucy, movies such as An Affair To Remember, and Brigadoon, are watched frequently even in todays society. But in this world of fairytale movies and the American Dream, what about those who didnt fit into the picture of perfection and prosperity? These men

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Case Study of Dexus Properties Group Samples †

Question: Discuss about the Study of Dexus Properties Group. Answer: Business operations: The company undertaken fore review is the Dexus property group which is an Australian Real Estate Investment Trust which invests, develops, manages and trades the Australian office and also the industrial property. The company owns a diversified portfolio which mainly consist of central business district offices which are held for longer term and are also leased (Are, 2017). Investments and investment activities: The following are the investment activities included: Capital expenditure on fixed assets Capital expenditure on other assets Net assets from acquisitions Sale of the fixed assets and businesses Purchase and sale from investments Sale and maturity of investments (Are, 2017). The following are the financing activities of the company: Cash dividends on common equity shares and preferred shares Change in the capital stock Repurchase of the common and preferred stock Sale of common and preferred stock Proceeds from stock options Other proceeds from sale of stock Issuance or repayment of debt (Market watch, 2017). Financial reporting practices: The companys financial statements have bene prepared using the historical cost basis. But the derivative financial instruments, investments in the financial assets along with the defined benefit obligations have been prepared on the basis of the fair values. These statements have been prepared using the applicable Australian Accounting standards including the interpretations of the country of austral and the Corporations Act 2001. These also comply with the International financial Reporting Standards and the interpretations as have been issued by the International Accounting Standards Board. Industry size: The industry has the size of $43.8 billion which was recorded during august, 2002. Industry growth: The industry shows an equity growth of 87.50 % (SMH, 2017). Industry supply chain: The supply chain efficiencies drive in the demand and supports the large retailers and the transport and the logistics occupiers which supports in the industrial demand. This takes in the advantage of the competitive pro commitment market which improve and consolidates the supply chains. There are larger retailers and the transport and the logistic occupiers that support the industrial demand. There are consolidated supply chains in respect of which there is an occupier demand which varies widely between the status of Sydney and the Melbourne, Brisbane. This is mainly due to the compliance in the demand of the solid pre lease demand in these markets and also due to the stronger values that would be achieved for the fully leased buildings. The year 2017 is most likely to be more subdued which follows the reduction in the projects that have bene planned in Brisbane and Perth. The rents are also likely to remain subdued and also stable since there is a pre-commitment in the market which remains competitive. There are land constraints too. Major players: The major players include Investa Property group, GPT group, ALE property group, Westfield corp Charter Hall group (PIR, 2017). Market shares of Industry players: Dexus market 9.61 B (Bloomberg, 2017). Investa Property group- $4,561 M (Invests smart, 2017). GPT group- 8.68 B AUD (Bloomberg, 2017). ALE property group- 927.95 M AUD Westfield corp- 15.88 B AUD (Bloomberg, 2017). Charter Hall group 2.46 B AUD (Bloomberg, 2017). Critical success factors: The Company is one of the leading real estate group in the country. It drives its success from the passionate innovation and collaboration which seeks to deliver in the right amount of space for the customers all across the extensive portfolio of the properties relating to the offices, industry and retail. The company caters to the needs of the customers and also delivers the services that are designed so as to add in the value to the partners. The company focusses on being the wholesale partner of choice. The demand for the top quality office buildings remains strong even when there are some of the challenges that exists in the lesser quality of the buildings (Dexus, 2017). Major threats: The following are the factors that threatened the same: The population of the country is ageing and so, the people have a different way of doing things and hence, they may not be able to afford the prices There is an underfunding of the state and the local retirement system which would present a challenge for the industry (Hoak, 2017). There is a change in the demand of the office space This also goes in line with the change in the demand for the retail space There is an issue related with the amount of the commercial real estate loans which would be required to be refinanced in the next couple of years. An attention has to be paid to the sustainability which would serve as the main thing when it comes to the saving of the environmental resources There are many of the commercial properties that are overvalued (Market watch, 2017) References: Are, W. and Business, O. (2017).Dexus - Capabilities. [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 Sep. 2017]. Are, W. and Business, O. (2017).Dexus - History. [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 Sep. 2017]. (2017).CHC:ASE Stock Quote - Charter Hall Group. [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 Sep. 2017]. (2017).DXS:ASE Stock Quote - Dexus. [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 Sep. 2017]. (2017).GPT:ASE Stock Quote - GPT Group/The. [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 Sep. 2017]. (2017).WFD:ASE Stock Quote - Westfield Corp. [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 Sep. 2017]. Cummins, C. (2017).Mixed outlook for AREIT sector. [online] The Sydney Morning Herald. Available at: [Accessed 1 Sep. 2017]. Hoak, A. (2017).The top 10 threats facing real estate. [online] MarketWatch. Available at: [Accessed 1 Sep. 2017]. InvestSMART. (2017).Investa Property Group. [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 Sep. 2017]. (2017).DuluxGroup Ltd.. [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 Sep. 2017]. (2017).Competitors. [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 Sep. 2017].